When to Plant Cover Crops for Optimal Results

Vortek Team |
November 21, 2023

In the world of agriculture, cover crops are often considered the unsung heroes. These versatile plants, sown in the off-seasons, play a crucial role in maintaining healthy and productive farmland. By covering bare patches of land, cover crops prevent erosion, enhance nutrient content, and suppress weeds. Their roots loosen compacted soil, allowing for better water infiltration and air circulation, transforming even barren fields into productive ground. For an informative infographic on the components that make up healthy soil, take a look at this interactive diagram.

Keep reading to learn more about what you should plant and when. We will introduce you to some tools and information that can help you make the right decision for your farm.

Timing is Key

The timing of cover crop planting is crucial for maximizing their benefits. The ideal planting time depends on the type of cover crop and the local climate. Generally, cover crops can be planted in either fall or spring.

Fall Cover Crops

Fall is a popular time to plant cover crops, as the cooler temperatures and moist soil conditions favor their growth. Fall-planted cover crops typically overwinter and are terminated in the spring. This allows their residues to decompose and release nutrients into the soil just as your spring crops begin to grow.

Spring Cover Crops

Spring-planted cover crops are sown after the danger of frost has passed and the soil has warmed up. These cover crops are typically terminated in the summer or early fall, providing a quick boost of nutrients and organic matter to the soil.

Choosing the Right Cover Crop

Selecting the appropriate cover crop is essential for achieving your specific farming goals. Different cover crops offer unique benefits and serve different purposes.


Legumes, such as hairy vetch, crimson clover, and peas, are nitrogen-fixing plants. This means they have the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use. Legumes are particularly beneficial for improving soil fertility and increasing nitrogen levels.

Grains and Grasses

Grains and grasses, such as oats, rye, and barley, are excellent for suppressing weeds and preventing soil erosion. Their dense root systems help to break up compacted soil and improve water infiltration.


Brassicas, such as radishes and turnips, are known for their ability to break up hardpan and increase nutrient availability. Their roots release compounds that help to loosen compacted soil and make nutrients more accessible to plants.

Still feel like you need some help deciding on what cover crop varieties to plant? Use this tool to determine what cover crops are right for you.

Considerations for Planting Time

While the general guidelines for planting cover crops in fall or spring are helpful, there are several factors to consider when determining the exact timing for your specific location.

Local Climate

The local climate plays a significant role in cover crop planting time. In warmer regions, cover crops can be planted earlier in the fall and later in the spring. In colder climates, planting may need to be delayed until the soil has warmed up sufficiently in the spring.

Specific Cover Crop Requirements

Each type of cover crop has its own unique temperature requirements for germination and growth. It’s important to consult with local agricultural extension services or experienced farmers to determine the best planting times for specific cover crops in your area.

Crop Rotation

Consider your crop rotation plan when selecting and timing cover crop planting. Avoid planting cover crops from the same family as your main crops, as this can increase the risk of pests and diseases.

Again, if you need some help deciding on what cover crop varieties to plant in your climate, use this tool to help you decide.

Tilling a field in tandem.

Additional Tips for Successful Cover Crop Planting

  • Prepare the Soil: Before planting cover crops, ensure the soil is adequately loose and free of weeds. Tilling or disking the soil may be necessary to improve soil structure and eliminate potential competition. If you are interested in alternative tilling methods, check out our article on Vertical Tillage.
  • Planting Depth: The planting depth of cover crops varies depending on the species. Generally, larger seeds should be planted deeper, while smaller seeds can be broadcast on the soil surface and raked in lightly.
  • Seeding Rate: Seeding rates for cover crops vary depending on the species and the desired level of cover. Consult this useful table and seeding calculator if you need help.
  • Termination: The termination method for cover crops depends on your specific needs and goals. Some cover crops can be terminated by mowing or grazing animals, while others may need to be terminated mechanically or chemically. For more information on termination, check out this guide.

Incorporating Cover Crops into Your Farming Routine

Cover crops are a valuable tool for any farmer, regardless of experience level. By incorporating cover crops into your farming routine, you can reap numerous benefits for your farmland and your crops. With careful planning and timing, you can ensure that your cover crops provide maximum benefits for your farm’s health and productivity.

If you feel like you still need more in-depth information on all things cover crops, check out this guide by SARE called “Managing Cover Crops Profitably”.

hauling equipement
Testing out the Vortek Air Seeder at a local farm.

Saving Time and Money with Vortek

Now that you have a plan for what cover crops to seed and when it’s time to think about the “how”. There are many different methods of planting cover crops including drilling, precision planting and broadcast seeding. Here at Vortek we believe that efficiency is one of the key deciding factors between these methods. As a busy farmer you know that time is money! That’s why we designed the Vortek Air Seeder to pair up with your existing tillage implement so you can till and plant or fertilize in a single pass. The best part is that you don’t have to sacrifice yield for efficiency. Check out this side by side comparison between the Vortek and a John Deere seed drill.

That’s not the end of the story. The Vortek Air Seeder also comes with our 130-bushel/138 cu. ft. Vortek Air Cart that will minimize fill ups and set you up to blow through planting season way before the deadline. A couple of other features to highlight are the flexible rate control module that is ISOBUS compatible, no hassle fill seed tank with a 22″ – 22″ opening and the compatibility with vertical tillage implements.

If you want to give the Vortek Seeder a try, contact us today to demo it in your field. Or contact one of our custom seeding partners to test out yields before purchasing one of your own.

Contact Details

Do you have questions about our air seeder? Please contact us with your questions!

Vortek Carts in Stock!

give us a call to schedule a demonstration or get your today!
In Stock